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Appendix 5: Global Processes Indicating Recent Creation

by Dr. Henry M. Morris:

(taken from the Defender's Study Bible)

It is widely taught today that the earth is 4.6 billion years old and the universe anywhere from 8.0 billion years old to eternally old. The Bible, on the other hand, indicates the universe to be only a few thousand years old, and all known human history (as recorded in the historical annals of Egypt, Sumeria and other ancient nations) also is limited to a few thousand years.

The great ages needed to make evolutionism appear feasible are based mainly on a handful of very slow radioactive decay processes (e.g., uranium to lead, potassium to argon, etc.). These must each be based on at least three unproveable assumptions:

  • Known initial boundary conditions (e.g., assumption of no initial radiogenic lead in the uranium/lead mineral).
  • Isolated system (i.e., no ingress or egress of components of the system during the time it is functioning).
  • Constant rate of process (i.e., no effect of environmental radiations or any other force on the decay rate).

None of these assumptions are capable of either proof or disproof, since conditions are unknown prior to recorded history. All are known to be wrong in almost all natural processes.

On the other hand, there are scores of worldwide natural processes which, even with the above “uniformitarian” assumptions, will indicate ages far too brief for evolution to be feasible. Some of these are listed in the accompanying tabulation, with references for each.

These may all be wrong, of course, because they are all based on the same unreasonable assumptions as for the very few processes that yield old ages.

However, there are many more of them, and the assumptions are more likely to be valid for short time periods than for long periods. Therefore, the weight of scientific evidence (entirely apart from the definitive and conclusive evidence of Biblical revelation) is that the universe is young.

This tabulation is modified from the tabulation originally published as an ICR “Impact” article in Acts and Facts, then also What is Creation Science? by Henry M. Morris and Gary Parker (San Diego, Master Books, 1987), pp. 288-293.

Uniformitarian Estimates—Age of the Earth

Process Estimated Age of Earth in Years Reference
1. Decay of earth's magnetic field 10,000 1
2. Influx of radiocarbon to the earth system 10,000 2
3. Continuous rapid deposition of geologic column too small to calculate 3
4. Influx of juvenile water to oceans 340,000,000 3
5. Influx of magma from mantle to form crust 500,000,000 3
6. Growth of oldest living part of biosphere 5,000 3
7. Origin of human civilizations 5,000 3
8. Efflux of Helium-4 into the atmosphere 1,750—175,000 4
9. Development of total human population 4,000 5
10. Influx of sediment to the ocean via rivers 30,000,000 6
11. Erosion of sediment from continents 14,000,000 6
12. Leaching of sodium from continents 1,000,000 7
13. Leaching of chlorine from continents 1,000,000 7
14. Leaching of calcium from continents 12,000,000 7
15. Influx of carbonate to the ocean 100,000 7
16. Influx of sulphate to the ocean 10,000,000 7
17. Influx of chlorine to the ocean 164,000,000 7
18. Influx of calcium to the ocean 1,000,000 7
19. Influx of uranium to the ocean 1,260,000 8
20. Efflux of oil from traps by fluid pressure 10,000—100,000 9
21. Formation of radiogenic lead by neutron capture too small to measure 9
22. Formation of radiogenic strontium by neutron capture too small to measure 9
23. Decay of natural remanent paleomagnetism 100,000 9
24. Parentless polonium halos too small to measure 10
25. Decay of uranium with initial “radiogenic” lead too small to measure 11
26. Decay of potassium with entrapped argon too small to measure 11
27. Formation of river deltas 5,000 12
28. Submarine oil seepage into oceans 50,000,000 13
29. Decay of natural plutonium 80,000,000 14
30. Decay of lines of galaxies 10,000,000 15
31. Expanding interstellar gas 60,000,000 16
32. Decay of short-period comets 10,000 17
33. Decay of long-period comets 1,000,000 18
34. Influx of small particles to the sun 83,000 18
35. Maximum life of meteor showers 5,000,000 18
36. Instability of rings of Saturn 1,000,000 18
37. Escape of methane from Titan 20,000,000 18
38. Accumulation of dust on the moon uncertain 19
39. Deceleration of earth by tidal friction 500,000,000 20
40. Cooling of the earth by heat efflux 24,000,000 20
41. Accumulation of calcareous ooze on sea floor 5,000,000 21
42. Influx of sodium to the ocean via rivers 62,000,000 22
43. Influx of nickel to the ocean via rivers 9,000 23
44. Influx of magnesium to the ocean via rivers 45,000,000 23
45. Influx of silicon to the ocean via rivers 8,000 23
46. Influx of potassium to the ocean via rivers 11,000,000 23
47. Influx of copper to the ocean via rivers 50,000 23
48. Influx of gold to the ocean via rivers 560,000 23
49. Influx of silver to the ocean via rivers 2,100,000 23
50. Influx of mercury to the ocean via rivers 42,000 23
51. Influx of lead to the ocean via rivers 2,000 23
52. Influx of tin to the ocean via rivers 100,000 23
53. Influx of aluminum to the ocean via rivers 100 23
54. Influx of lithium into ocean via rivers 20,000,000 23
55. Influx of titanium into ocean via rivers 160 23
56. Influx of chromium into ocean via rivers 350 23
57. Influx of manganese into ocean via rivers 1,400 23
58. Influx of iron into ocean via rivers 140 23
59. Influx of cobalt into ocean via rivers 18,000 23
60. Influx of zinc into ocean via rivers 180,000 23
61. Influx of rubidium into ocean via rivers 270,000 23
62. Influx of strontium into ocean via rivers 19,000,000 23
63. Influx of bismuth into ocean via rivers 45,000 23
64. Influx of thorium into ocean via rivers 350 23
65. Influx of antimony into ocean via rivers 350,000 23
66. Influx of tungsten into ocean via rivers 1,000 23
67. Influx of barium into ocean via rivers 84,000 23
68. Influx of molybdenum into ocean via rivers 500,000 23

Reference Documentation for Age Estimates

  1. Thomas G. Barnes, Origin and Destiny of the Earth's Magnetic Field (San Diego: Institute for Creation Research, 1983), 132 pp.
  2. Melvin A. Cook, “Do Radiological Clocks Need Repair?” Creation Research Society Quarterly 5 (Oct. 1968): 70. Also see, Radiocarbon and the Age of the Earth, by Gerald Aardsma (San Diego: Institute for Creation Research, 1991).
  3. Henry M. Morris, ed., Scientific Creationism (San Diego: Master Books, 1985).
  4. Melvin A. Cook, “Where is the Earth's Radiogenic Helium?” Nature 179 (Jan. 26, 1957): 213. See also The Age of the Earth's Atmosphere>, by Larry Vardiman (San Diego: Institute for Creation Research, 1990).
  5. Henry M. Morris, “Evolution and the Population Problem,” ICR Impact Series, Acts and Facts, no. 21 (Nov. 1974).
  6. Stuart E. Nevins, “Evolution: The Ocean Says No,” ICR Impact Series, Acts and Facts 2, no. 8 (Oct. 1973).
  7. Dudley J. Whitney, The Face of the Deep (New York: Vantage, 1955).
  8. Salman Bloch, “Some Factors Controlling the Concentration of Uranium in the World Ocean,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 44 (1980): 373-77. See also What is Creation Science? by Henry M. Morris and Gary Parker (San Diego: Master Books, 1987), pp. 283-284.
  9. Melvin A. Cook, Prehistory and Earth Models (London: Max Parrish, 1966).
  10. Robert Gentry, Creation's Tiny Mystery (Knoxville: Earth Science Associates, 1988).
  11. Harold S. Slusher, Critique of Radiometric Dating (San Diego: Institute for Creation Research, 1980), 58 pp.
  12. Benjamin F. Allen, “The Geologic Age of the Mississippi River,” Creation Research Society Quarterly 9 (Sept. 1972): 96-114.
  13. R. D. Wilson, et al., “Natural Marine Oil Seepage,” Science 184 (May 24, 1974): 857-65.
  14. “Natural Plutonium,” Chemical and Engineering News 49 (Sept. 20, 1971): 29.
  15. Halton Arp, “Observational Paradoxes in Extragalactic Astronomy,” Science 174 (Dec. 17, 1971): 1189-1200.
  16. V. A. Hughes and D. Routledge, “An Expanding Ring of Interstellar Gas with Center Close to the Sun,” Astronomical Journal 77, no. 3 (1972): 210-14.
  17. Harold S. Slusher, “Some Astronomical Evidences for a Youthful Solar System,” Creation Research Society Quarterly 8 (June 1971): 55-57.
  18. Harold S. Slusher, Age of the Cosmos (San Diego: Institute for Creation Research, 1980), 76 pp.
  19. John D. Morris, The Young Earth (Colorado Springs, Master Books, 1994), pp. 87, 88.
  20. Thomas G. Barnes, “Physics, a Challenge to Geologic Time,” ICR Impact Series, Acts and Facts 16 (July 1974).
  21. Maurice Ewing, J. I. Ewing, and M. Talwan, “Sediment Distribution in the Oceans—Mid-Atlantic Ridge,” Bulletin of the Geophysical Society of America 75 (Jan. 1967): 17-36.
  22. Steven A. Austin and Russell D. Humphries, “The Sea's Missing Salt: A Dilemma for Evolutionists,” Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Creationism 2 (1991): 17-33.
  23. J. P. Riley and G. Skirrow, eds., Chemical Oceanography 1 (London: Academic Press, 1965): 164. See also Harold Camping, “Let the Oceans Speak,” Creation Research Society Quarterly 11 (June 1974): 39-45. Uniformitarian geologists, making the unwarranted assumption that ocean chemicals are all in a steady state, have noted that the same method of calculation would give the so-called “residence time” of each element in the ocean, if the influx and efflux of the elements are assumed to be equal. This assumption is wrong, however, as shown in References 8 and 22, for uranium and sodium in particular.